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Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Илья Шипицин
October 05, 2023 02:18AM
чт, 5 окт. 2023 г. в 03:51, Yusuke Nojima <nojima@ynojima.com>:

> Thank you for your comment!
>
> > Could you please provide some more details about the use case,
> > such as how locations are used, and what is the approximate number
> > of locations being used?
>
> Our team provides development environments to our company's engineers and
> QA.
> In this environment, engineers and QA can freely create VMs and deploy
> applications on them.
>
> Our nginx has the role of routing requests from the internet to all
> applications deployed in this environment.
> Additionally, it allows setting IP address restrictions, BASIC
> authentication, TLS client authentication, and other configurations
> for each application.
>

BASIC auth is known to be CPU consuming as well, hash is calculated on
every http request.
what is a ratio of authenticated requests ? do you see high CPU consumption
?


>
> To implement these requirements, we generate a location for each
> application.
> Currently, there are approximately 40,000 locations in our environment.
>
> > Further, since each location contains configuration for
> > all modules, such configurations are expected to require a lot of
> > memory
>
> Each of our nginx processes was consuming 5GB of memory in terms of
> resident size.
> This is not a problem as our servers have sufficient memory.
>
> > Rather, I would suggest recursive top-bottom merge sort implementation
> > instead, which is much simpler and uses stack as temporary storage
> > (so it'll naturally die if there will be a queue which requires
> > more space for sorting than we have).
> >
> > Please take a look if it works for you:
>
> I think this implementation is simple and easy to understand.
> Although the number of traversals of the list will increase compared
> to bottom-up, it will not affect the order.
> I believe this will provide sufficient optimization in terms of speed.
>
>
> 2023年9月30日(土) 12:38 Maxim Dounin <mdounin@mdounin.ru>:
> >
> > Hello!
> >
> > On Fri, Sep 22, 2023 at 03:58:41PM +0900, Yusuke Nojima wrote:
> >
> > > # HG changeset patch
> > > # User Yusuke Nojima <nojima@ynojima.com>
> > > # Date 1679555707 -32400
> > > # Thu Mar 23 16:15:07 2023 +0900
> > > # Node ID 6aac98fb135e47ca9cf7ad7d780cf4a10e9aa55c
> > > # Parent 8771d35d55d0a2b1cefaab04401d6f837f5a05a2
> > > Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations
> > >
> > > Our team has a configuration file with a very large number of
> > > locations, and we found that starting nginx with this file takes an
> > > unacceptable amount of time. After investigating the issue, we
> > > discovered that the root cause of the long startup time is the sorting
> > > of the location list.
> >
> > Interesting.
> >
> > Could you please provide some more details about the use case,
> > such as how locations are used, and what is the approximate number
> > of locations being used?
> >
> > In my practice, it is extremely uncommon to use more than 1k-10k
> > prefix locations (and even these numbers are huge for normal
> > setups). Further, since each location contains configuration for
> > all modules, such configurations are expected to require a lot of
> > memory (currently about 5-10KB per empty location, so about
> > 50-100MB per 10k locations, and 0.5-1G per 100k locations).
> > Accordingly, using other approaches such as map (assuming exact
> > match is actually needed) might be beneficial regardless of the
> > sorting costs.
> >
> > Nevertheless, swapping the sorting algorithm to a faster one looks
> > like an obvious improvement.
> >
> > >
> > > Currently, the sorting algorithm used in nginx is insertion sort,
> > > which requires O(n^2) time for n locations. We have modified the
> > > sorting algorithm to use merge sort instead, which has a time
> > > complexity of O(n log n).
> > >
> > > We have tested the modified code using micro-benchmarks and confirmed
> > > that the new algorithm improves nginx startup time significantly
> > > (shown below). We believe that this change would be valuable for other
> > > users who are experiencing similar issues.
> > >
> > >
> > > Table: nginx startup time in seconds
> > >
> > > n current patched
> > > 2000 0.033 0.018
> > > 4000 0.047 0.028
> > > 6000 0.062 0.038
> > > 8000 0.079 0.050
> > > 10000 0.091 0.065
> > > 12000 0.367 0.081
> > > 14000 0.683 0.086
> > > 16000 0.899 0.097
> > > 18000 1.145 0.110
> > > 20000 1.449 0.122
> > > 22000 1.650 0.137
> > > 24000 2.155 0.151
> > > 26000 3.096 0.155
> > > 28000 3.711 0.168
> > > 30000 3.539 0.184
> > > 32000 3.980 0.193
> > > 34000 4.543 0.208
> > > 36000 4.349 0.217
> > > 38000 5.021 0.229
> > > 40000 4.918 0.245
> > > 42000 4.835 0.256
> > > 44000 5.159 0.262
> > > 46000 5.802 0.331
> > > 48000 6.205 0.295
> > > 50000 5.701 0.308
> > > 52000 5.992 0.335
> > > 54000 6.561 0.323
> > > 56000 6.856 0.333
> > > 58000 6.515 0.347
> > > 60000 7.051 0.359
> > > 62000 6.956 0.377
> > > 64000 7.376 0.376
> > > 66000 7.506 0.404
> > > 68000 7.292 0.407
> > > 70000 7.422 0.461
> > > 72000 10.090 0.443
> > > 74000 18.505 0.463
> > > 76000 11.857 0.462
> > > 78000 9.752 0.470
> > > 80000 12.485 0.481
> > > 82000 11.027 0.498
> > > 84000 9.804 0.523
> > > 86000 8.482 0.515
> > > 88000 9.838 0.560
> > > 90000 12.341 0.546
> > > 92000 13.881 0.648
> > > 94000 8.309 0.635
> > > 96000 8.854 0.650
> > > 98000 12.871 0.674
> > > 100000 8.261 0.698
> >
> > This probably can be reduced to something like 3-5 data points.
> >
> > >
> > > diff -r 8771d35d55d0 -r 6aac98fb135e src/core/ngx_queue.c
> > > --- a/src/core/ngx_queue.c Fri Mar 10 07:43:50 2023 +0300
> > > +++ b/src/core/ngx_queue.c Thu Mar 23 16:15:07 2023 +0900
> > > @@ -45,36 +45,103 @@
> > > }
> > >
> > >
> > > -/* the stable insertion sort */
> > > +/* merge queue2 into queue1. queue2 becomes empty after merge. */
> > > +
> > > +static void
> > > +ngx_queue_merge(ngx_queue_t *queue1, ngx_queue_t *queue2,
> > > + ngx_int_t (*cmp)(const ngx_queue_t *, const ngx_queue_t *))
> > > +{
> > > + ngx_queue_t *p1, *p2;
> >
> > Nitpicking: there are various style issues here and in other places.
> >
> > > +
> > > + p1 = ngx_queue_head(queue1);
> > > + p2 = ngx_queue_head(queue2);
> > > +
> > > + while (p1 != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue1)
> > > + && p2 != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue2)) {
> > > +
> > > + if (cmp(p1, p2) > 0) {
> > > + ngx_queue_t *next, *prev;
> > > +
> > > + next = ngx_queue_next(p2);
> > > + ngx_queue_remove(p2);
> > > + prev = ngx_queue_prev(p1);
> > > + ngx_queue_insert_after(prev, p2);
> > > + p2 = next;
> >
> > Nitpicking: there is no need to preserve "next" here, since p2 is
> > always the head of queue2 and, and the next element can be
> > obtained by ngx_queue_head(queue2).
> >
> > Also, instead of obtaining "prev" and using
> > ngx_queue_insert_after() it would be easier to use
> > ngx_queue_insert_before(). It is not currently defined, but it is
> > trivial to define one: it is an alias to ngx_queue_insert_tail(),
> > much like ngx_queue_insert_after() is an alias to
> > ngx_queue_insert_head().
> >
> > > + } else {
> > > + p1 = ngx_queue_next(p1);
> > > + }
> > > + }
> > > + if (p2 != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue2)) {
> > > + ngx_queue_add(queue1, queue2);
> > > + ngx_queue_init(queue2);
> > > + }
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +
> > > +/* move all elements from src to dest. dest should be empty before
> call. */
> > > +
> > > +static void
> > > +ngx_queue_move(ngx_queue_t *dest, ngx_queue_t *src)
> > > +{
> > > + *dest = *src;
> > > + ngx_queue_init(src);
> > > +
> > > + if (dest->next == src) {
> > > + dest->next = dest;
> > > + } else {
> > > + dest->next->prev = dest;
> > > + }
> > > + if (dest->prev == src) {
> > > + dest->prev = dest;
> > > + } else {
> > > + dest->prev->next = dest;
> > > + }
> > > +}
> >
> > This function looks strange to me. There is the ngx_queue_add()
> > macro, which probably should be used instead (if needed).
> >
> > > +
> > > +
> > > +/* the stable merge sort */
> > >
> > > void
> > > ngx_queue_sort(ngx_queue_t *queue,
> > > ngx_int_t (*cmp)(const ngx_queue_t *, const ngx_queue_t *))
> > > {
> > > - ngx_queue_t *q, *prev, *next;
> > > + ngx_queue_t merged[64], *p, *last;
> > >
> > > - q = ngx_queue_head(queue);
> > > -
> > > - if (q == ngx_queue_last(queue)) {
> > > + if (ngx_queue_head(queue) == ngx_queue_last(queue)) {
> > > return;
> > > }
> > >
> > > - for (q = ngx_queue_next(q); q != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue); q =
> next) {
> > > + last = merged;
> > >
> > > - prev = ngx_queue_prev(q);
> > > - next = ngx_queue_next(q);
> > > + while (!ngx_queue_empty(queue)) {
> > > + /*
> > > + * Loop invariant:
> > > + * merged[i] must have exactly 0 or 2^i elements in sorted
> order.
> > > + * For each iteration, we take one element from the given
> queue and
> > > + * insert it into merged without violating the invariant
> condition.
> > > + */
> > >
> > > - ngx_queue_remove(q);
> > > + ngx_queue_t carry, *h;
> > > +
> > > + h = ngx_queue_head(queue);
> > > + ngx_queue_remove(h);
> > > + ngx_queue_init(&carry);
> > > + ngx_queue_insert_head(&carry, h);
> > >
> > > - do {
> > > - if (cmp(prev, q) <= 0) {
> > > - break;
> > > - }
> > > + for (p = merged; p != last && !ngx_queue_empty(p); p++) {
> > > + ngx_queue_merge(p, &carry, cmp);
> > > + ngx_queue_move(&carry, p);
> > > + }
> > > + if (p == last) {
> > > + ngx_queue_init(last);
> > > + last++;
> > > + }
> > > + ngx_queue_move(p, &carry);
> > > + }
> > >
> > > - prev = ngx_queue_prev(prev);
> > > -
> > > - } while (prev != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue));
> > > -
> > > - ngx_queue_insert_after(prev, q);
> > > + /* Merge all queues into one queue */
> > > + for (p = merged + 1; p != last; p++) {
> > > + ngx_queue_merge(p, p-1, cmp);
> > > }
> > > + ngx_queue_move(queue, last-1);
> > > }
> >
> > While bottom-up merge sort implementation might be more efficient,
> > I find it disturbing to use fixed array of queues without any
> > checks if we are within the array bounds.
> >
> > Rather, I would suggest recursive top-bottom merge sort implementation
> > instead, which is much simpler and uses stack as temporary storage
> > (so it'll naturally die if there will be a queue which requires
> > more space for sorting than we have).
> >
> > Please take a look if it works for you:
> >
> > diff --git a/src/core/ngx_queue.c b/src/core/ngx_queue.c
> > --- a/src/core/ngx_queue.c
> > +++ b/src/core/ngx_queue.c
> > @@ -9,6 +9,10 @@
> > #include <ngx_core.h>
> >
> >
> > +static void ngx_queue_merge(ngx_queue_t *queue, ngx_queue_t *tail,
> > + ngx_int_t (*cmp)(const ngx_queue_t *, const ngx_queue_t *));
> > +
> > +
> > /*
> > * find the middle queue element if the queue has odd number of elements
> > * or the first element of the queue's second part otherwise
> > @@ -45,13 +49,13 @@ ngx_queue_middle(ngx_queue_t *queue)
> > }
> >
> >
> > -/* the stable insertion sort */
> > +/* the stable merge sort */
> >
> > void
> > ngx_queue_sort(ngx_queue_t *queue,
> > ngx_int_t (*cmp)(const ngx_queue_t *, const ngx_queue_t *))
> > {
> > - ngx_queue_t *q, *prev, *next;
> > + ngx_queue_t *q, tail;
> >
> > q = ngx_queue_head(queue);
> >
> > @@ -59,22 +63,44 @@ ngx_queue_sort(ngx_queue_t *queue,
> > return;
> > }
> >
> > - for (q = ngx_queue_next(q); q != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue); q =
> next) {
> > + q = ngx_queue_middle(queue);
> > +
> > + ngx_queue_split(queue, q, &tail);
> > +
> > + ngx_queue_sort(queue, cmp);
> > + ngx_queue_sort(&tail, cmp);
> > +
> > + ngx_queue_merge(queue, &tail, cmp);
> > +}
> >
> > - prev = ngx_queue_prev(q);
> > - next = ngx_queue_next(q);
> >
> > - ngx_queue_remove(q);
> > +static void
> > +ngx_queue_merge(ngx_queue_t *queue, ngx_queue_t *tail,
> > + ngx_int_t (*cmp)(const ngx_queue_t *, const ngx_queue_t *))
> > +{
> > + ngx_queue_t *q1, *q2;
> > +
> > + q1 = ngx_queue_head(queue);
> > + q2 = ngx_queue_head(tail);
> >
> > - do {
> > - if (cmp(prev, q) <= 0) {
> > - break;
> > - }
> > + for ( ;; ) {
> > + if (q1 == ngx_queue_sentinel(queue)) {
> > + ngx_queue_add(queue, tail);
> > + break;
> > + }
> > +
> > + if (q2 == ngx_queue_sentinel(tail)) {
> > + break;
> > + }
> >
> > - prev = ngx_queue_prev(prev);
> > + if (cmp(q1, q2) <= 0) {
> > + q1 = ngx_queue_next(q1);
> > + continue;
> > + }
> >
> > - } while (prev != ngx_queue_sentinel(queue));
> > + ngx_queue_remove(q2);
> > + ngx_queue_insert_before(q1, q2);
> >
> > - ngx_queue_insert_after(prev, q);
> > + q2 = ngx_queue_head(tail);
> > }
> > }
> > diff --git a/src/core/ngx_queue.h b/src/core/ngx_queue.h
> > --- a/src/core/ngx_queue.h
> > +++ b/src/core/ngx_queue.h
> > @@ -47,6 +47,9 @@ struct ngx_queue_s {
> > (h)->prev = x
> >
> >
> > +#define ngx_queue_insert_before ngx_queue_insert_tail
> > +
> > +
> > #define ngx_queue_head(h)
> \
> > (h)->next
> >
> >
> >
> > --
> > Maxim Dounin
> > http://mdounin.ru/
> > _______________________________________________
> > nginx-devel mailing list
> > nginx-devel@nginx.org
> > https://mailman.nginx.org/mailman/listinfo/nginx-devel
> _______________________________________________
> nginx-devel mailing list
> nginx-devel@nginx.org
> https://mailman.nginx.org/mailman/listinfo/nginx-devel
>
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Subject Author Views Posted

[PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Yusuke Nojima 367 September 22, 2023 03:00AM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Maxim Dounin 85 September 29, 2023 11:40PM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Yusuke Nojima 68 October 04, 2023 09:52PM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Илья Шипицин 87 October 05, 2023 02:18AM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Yusuke Nojima 77 October 05, 2023 10:40PM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Maxim Dounin 66 October 10, 2023 06:58PM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Yusuke Nojima 70 October 11, 2023 06:34AM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Sergey Kandaurov 66 October 17, 2023 07:26AM

Re: [PATCH] Improve performance when starting nginx with a lot of locations

Maxim Dounin 90 October 17, 2023 10:04PM



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